In Belarus, more than 30 children and adolescents diagnosed with thyroid cancer undergo surgery annually. Among adults, about one thousand are operated every year. According to Belarusian doctors, this figure is constant year on year. The incidence of thyroid cancer is the United States and France is the highest. The most common pathology of the thyroid gland is hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid body produces an insufficient amount of hormones. In Belarus, there are about 112 thousand patients with this diagnosis.